Domestic Abuse and Violence – 2022 Data

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Domestic violence can range from emotional abuse to physical and sexual abuse.

The abuser can be a partner, relative, neighbour, employer or friend; not all domestic abuse is contained within a relationship with a partner.

These various types of abuse are often difficult to identify so it is important to remember that abuse becomes abuse when someone is misusing their power or control over you to deliberately cause mental or physical harm and distress.

What Causes Domestic Abuse?

A lot of domestic violence is rooted in power and control. Although it is commonly prompted through misogyny, it can happen to anyone regardless of gender, race, sexuality or religion.

Some domestic violence is caused by individuals who have been surrounded primarily by violence throughout their childhood and may consider this kind of behaviour to be the norm.

Psych Central is an organisation the specialises in the causes of domestic violence. It lists various factors that may amount to a need for control in a relationship that may ultimately result in domestic violence. These factors being:

  • Less access to education;
  • Personality disorders;
  • Substance abuse;
  • Cultural attitudes;
  • Gender ideologies;
  • Low self-esteem; and
  • Struggling with anger management and security.
Domestic violance

What percent of domestic violence cases are alcohol related?

Studies show that two thirds of domestic incidents that are known to the police were found to involve at least one individual within a couple to have been ‘under the influence’.

Some participants that were interviewed considered alcohol to have a direct effect on their behaviour and occasionally presented alcohol as an exculpatory factor of the abuse.

Furthermore, alcohol was logged as involved in 68.2% of the domestic incidents that were reported to the police.

How many people are affected by domestic violence?

Domestic violence can happen to both men and women, and in the most severe of cases, can result in death.

How many women die from domestic violence?

The Office for National Statistics (ONS) 2019 published statistics stating that two women per week are killed by a current of former partner in England and Wales alone.

In the year ending March 2018, a third of women were killed by their partner or ex-partner (33%, 63 homicides), which is the fewest number of women killed in the last 40 years. Between April 2018 and March 2019, ONS shows that 80 women were killed.

However, this statistic could be changed due to a number of continuing police investigations and the wait for the Homicide index to be updated. Similarly, women can be abusers towards men.

How many men die from domestic violence?

Over the past 5 years from April 2015 to March 2020, an average of 12 men per year have been killed by a partner or ex partner.

Almost half of male victims (49%) fail to tell anyone that they are a victim of domestic abuse, and are two and a half times less likely to tell anyone compared to female victims.

But What Percentage of Domestic Violence Victims are Male?

The ONS figures show that every year, one in three victims of domestic abuse are male. This equates to 757,000 men. Regarding the domestic abuse crimes that have been reported to the police, 26% of them were from male victims.

Domestic abuse is primarily discussed as an issue involving only women as the victims; however, these statistics prove that a large number of men do suffer, and often suffer in silence.

Why don’t men report domestic violence?

Domestic abuse against men is not primarily violent; people are often mistaken in thinking that abuse only has to be physical or violent for a man to be affected. Men may experience some, the majority, or even all of the following behaviours:

  • Bullying: being mocked or humiliated, insulted or criticised;
  • Control: being checked up on or followed by the abuser, and in severe cases, stalked;
  • Threats: intimidation and violence to establish their power;
  • Being forced into sex;
  • Financial control: taking money or stealing money; and
  • Gaslighting: denying the abuse and blaming it on the victim.

How Does Society View Domestic Violence?

Due to the stigma around men and domestic violence, they often tend not to report it as they do not want to be viewed as weak.

Societal norms pressurise men into being strong and hiding their emotions. From a young age, men are taught to suppress their emotions, so some victims may not even realise that they are being abused, and may not even have a reaction or thought process towards it. It is known that men feel ashamed or afraid of judgement by others, so this is one of the reasons why domestic violence is under reported.

Men need to know and understand that domestic violence is a severe crime and that they are not alone. It is always OK to ask for help.

What Is The History Of Domestic Violence?

Historically, domestic violence between partners was viewed by society as a private problem, not to be discussed outside of the relationship.

However, through feminist movements, these were brought to the attention of the public and the police were criticised for not taking marriage assault seriously, and for treating domestic violence victims differently to victims of stranger violence.

In the 1970s, the criminal justice police and practice has been reformed to criminalise partner violence and have more recently addressed the needs and problems of victims.

Over time, domestic violence has changed dramatically, but how long has domestic violence been an issue?

In the mid-1800s, the majority of legal systems accepted wife beating, considering it a valid exercise of a husbands authority over his wife.

Second-wave feminism had a considerable effect on what is recognised as domestic violence as concerns regarding gender equality were becoming prominent. This ultimately led to domestic violence being recognised and legislation in respect of domestic violence began to develop.

It is often asked, Has domestic violence changed overtime? Abusers and their tactics have developed into more hidden forms of abuse.

But to this day, we are developing and educating ourselves and the system in domestic violence and its victims.

How Many People Are Victims of and affected by Domestic Violence?

In England and Wales, the Crime Survey showed that for a 12-month period ending March 2020, an estimated 2.3 million adults aged 16 to 74 years old had experienced domestic abuse. Of these incidents, the police recorded a total of 1,288,018 domestic abuse-related incidents and crimes, with 41% of these not being reported as a crime. But what are the domestic violence conviction rates? 78% of domestic abuse-related CPS prosecutions were successful in a conviction. This is a slight increase from the previous year ended March 2019, were 77% were successfully convicted.

For comparison it must be considered, how many domestic violence cases go unreported. Domestic violence commonly goes unreported due to the situational factors that victims are under during and after the abuse occurs. If the assailant is someone whom you have been in an intimate relationship with, it can be difficult to understand that the abuse you are suffering is meant to hurt you. Many victims of domestic violence find it difficult to accept that they are receiving abuse from someone they love and trust, therefore resulting in the excuses made by their abuser to become more believable.

How Much Does Domestic Violence Cost the UK?

Costs as a consequence of domestic abuse are as a result of physical and emotional harm to the victim, health service costs, lost output and victim services costs. Costs in response to domestic abuse are invested in police costs, the criminal legal system, the civil legal system and Multi Agency Risk Assessment Agencies(MARAC). In total, reports show that in 2016/17 domestic abuse is estimated to have cost over £66 billion.

Has Domestic Violence Increased, or Decreased?

Statistics show that from March 2005 to March 2020, domestic violence has gradually decreased from 8.9% to 6.1% in adults aged 16-59. However, during COVID-19 the rates of domestic violence increased significantly. As depicted from police reports, there was a 7% increase in domestic-abuse related offences from March-June 2019 to March-June 2020. There was a significant increase in victim services during the pandemic; Women’s Aid’s survey portrays that there was a 58% increase of 26 refuge services, an 80% increase of 30 community-based services, an 91% increase of 22 online support services and an 81% increase of 31 telephone support services.

Who Commits Domestic Violence and What Percentage of Perpetrators Are Male?

One study of 96 cases of domestic abuse recorded by the police found that men are significantly more likely to be repeat perpetrators and significantly more likely than women to use physical violence, threats, and harassment. In a six year tracking period the majority of recorded male perpetrators (83%) had at least two incidents of recorded abuse, with many having a lot more than two and one man having 52 repeat incidents.

But where is domestic violence most common in the world? Well of the 77 countries that reported to the United Nations, Sweden, the U.K., Botswana and Australia had the highest reported rates of sexual violence, however this is only regarding reported sexual violence.

In countries where domestic violence against women is normalised or not considered illegal, these incidents would not be reported or regarded as a negative act.

The worst countries for gender inequality are listed as the United Arab Emirates, Qatar and Saudi Arabia. Considering the significant gender inequality in these countries, it would be appropriate to expect these countries to have prominent cases of domestic violence.

How Do Most Domestic Violence Cases End?

It is unfortunate to say that the ending of a domestic violence case differs for everyone, and they are very rarely successful with the police and taken further with CPS. However, by logging evidence throughout the relationship, this builds a case against your abuser and will hopefully push to have them convicted in a court case. Evidence can be gathered via:

  • Logging your injuries with your GP;
  • Taking pictures of your injuries;
  • Taking recordings of the verbal or physical abuse; and
  • Taking voice notes of your encounters with your abuser.

Other relationships may end once you have reported it to the police and reached out for psychological help and to helplines, to seek assistance in leaving and starting over. There are women’s refuges that can house survivors of domestic violence and help to rehouse them elsewhere, away from the abuser, and in a safer environment.

Resources used to gather statistics for this article

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